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大体积混凝土的施工应采取哪些技术措施及混凝土养护

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ocusing on ways and means of improving a nd upgra ding w ork, further devel opment of "three to s plit". (A) fully grasp "no una uthori sed" create d. T he tow ns hip "no unaut horise d" created t he existi ng buildi ng "one house hol d, one document" s urvey and file storage w ork must be unconditional and full coverage. Mai n corridor leadi ng to the t own (roa d, river) village, the Ce ntral built-up area of the tow n on bot h si des must be to create a "no una uthorise d village". According to "five hundre d village s" created a nd s hanty towns , villages, old house s, reconstr ucti on of old plant, expand create, upgrading creates files, t he real "no unaut horis ed village" created int o the benefit of the pe ople of very good thi ng. (B) to stri ctly manage count as unaut hori sed controls. Promoti ng the "ne w" control w ork to move the ce nter of gravity, manageme nt measure s to the front, and ear nestly pi pes effectively. A strict new unaut hori sed network re sponsi bilit y. Sect ors s uch as la nd, housing and basi c stations (stations) and t he Tow nshi p of grid a ccountability me cha nisms must be stri ctly in a ccor dance wit h the new regulat ory requirem ents, effective implementation of the area of responsibility of the new inspe ctions, s uppress ion, dem olition work to e ns ure that the new "zer o tolerance". Se cond, publi c security, w ater, ele ctricit y, water, oce ans a nd fis heries , touri sm coll aborati on, market s upervi sion de partments s hould strictly enfor ce the illegal constr ucti on of dis posal of relevant pr ovisi ons of the regulati ons, effective fulfilment of res ponsi bilities, particularly in e lectri city and water suppl y, and other units may not be new il legal buildi ngs to supply water a nd el ectricity supply. While more reg ulation to pr event per sonal priva cy violati ons . Illicit tradi ng in illegal constr ucti on i n the Mi nistry of publi c se curity s ector t o strictly from the blow. T hree is t o create a dditional offence reporting sy stem of ince ntives. According to buil ding la w and cov ers an area of nature , to report timely degree divide d report grade, effective after the removal of certain i nce ntives. (C) integrate d implementati on ", buil ding demoliti on, m odificati on, use" combi nation. Dem olition is the means and purpose built i s. To adhere to t he buil ding demoli she d, combi nation of constr uction a nd demolition waste , demolished with combi ne d efforts to improve t he s cie ntific level of thr ee to s plit; second, we must pay attenti on to "thre e to s plit" and "five hundred" a nd "five water treatment", "three of the four si des", t he s hackDi strict transformation, a nd da ngerous ol d room transformation and "two roa d si des", se ries work organic com bine d up, active do Rive r, and al ong demolition w ork, and manpower a dvance village in the, and ol d resi dential demoliti on work, to improve d masses housi ng conditions and live e nvironment; thr ee to put "three m odified a split" as tra ditional low, a nd small , and bulk indus t ry structure tra nsformation upgrade of important i nitiatives to caug ht, speed up a dvance industry Park, effectiv e optimization park e nvironme nt

大体积混凝土的施工应采取哪些技术措施? 随着高层建筑与大型设备基础日益增多,大体积混凝土的应用也日益广泛。 大体积混凝土断面大、 水泥用量多,水泥水化后释放的水化热会使混凝土产生较 大的温度应力和收缩应力, 导致混凝土产生表面裂缝和贯穿性裂缝,影响结构的 整体性、 耐久性和防水抗渗性。 因此在大体积混凝土浇筑前应进行裂缝控制计算, 估算混凝土浇筑后可能产生的最大水化热温升值、温度差和温度收缩应力,以便 在施工中采取有效的技术措施。 大体积混凝土浇筑采取的技术措施应着重于

降低混凝土内部的最高温度、延缓降温速率、减小内外温差、减小混凝土收缩、 提高混凝土极限拉伸力及改善约束条件等方面。 常用的技术措施有以下几点。 (1) 降低水泥水化热 ①选用中低水化热的水泥,如矿渣硅酸盐水泥、火山灰硅酸 ②尽量选用级配良好的集料, 大量掺加粉煤灰等掺

盐水泥或粉煤灰水泥等。

和料, 充分利用混凝土的后期强度, 减少水泥用量, 每立方米混凝土每减少 10kg 水泥用量,混凝土水化温度将降低 1℃。 ③在混凝土内部预埋冷却水管,通

人循环冷却水带走热量。 (2)降低混凝土入模温度 ①夏季砂石材料应避免阳光 直晒,并可喷冷水雾或冷气预冷;用低温水或冰水搅拌混凝土;运输过程中也应 避免日晒。 ②保证模内通风,加速模内热量散发。 ③掺入缓凝型减水剂,避免 水化热集中产生。 (3)加强施工中温度控制 ①混凝土浇筑后,要保温保湿长期 养护,缓慢降温,避免混凝土内外温度、湿度梯度过大。 ②加强测温控温,及 时调整保温养护措施,将混凝土内外温度差控制在 25℃以下。 ③合理安排施工 顺序,使浇筑的混凝土均匀上升,避免过大高差。 (4)改善约束条件 ①分层分 块浇筑,合理设置施工缝及后浇带,以放松约束条件并减少水化热的聚集。 ② 对大体积混凝土基础,可在与岩石地基或混凝土垫层之间设置滑动层(隔离层), 如刷沥青、铺卷材等,以消嵌固作用,释放约束力。 (5)提高混凝土的极限拉伸 强度 ①选择良好级配的粗集料,严格控制砂石含泥量,可掺入适量的膨胀剂, 振捣要密实。 ②根据大体积混凝土形状,在易发生裂缝部位增配构造钢筋, 承受收缩拉应力。

and impr ove i dle la nd of utilizati on, real a chieve d envir onment improve d and pr oductivity development mut ual pr omoting total wi n. 异 优 绩 成 级 班 教 所 我 中 年 去 。 入 投 感 情 受 享 、 爱 热 更 法 方 * 效 学 科 需 仅 不 就 量 质 和 * 水 活 生 己 自 提 字 言 驭 驾 的 能 养 素 高 较 有 拥 , 文 语 好 考 要

Five, firmly implement, promoting w ork a head, to cre ate hig hlights. Thir d de ployme nt, impleme ntation of seve n, then it i s imperative to strengt hen re sponsi bility a nd im prove t he mechanisms a nd im plementation.

All localities and department s must be convi nce d that g oals, going all out, musteri ng s pirit, w ork together to e ns ure that t his year's objective s carry out task s, at the forefront. Fi rst, we m ust stre ngthen the lea ders hip t o imple ment. Departments at all levels shoul d always w ork a nd r ural "five water treat ment", "three to split" in an im portant position, and carry the mai n res ponsi bility, main lea der personall y, lea ders arreste d and layers of responsibility rank transmissi on press ure esta blis hed hierarchical accountabilit y, and w ork together to pr omote t he w ork of the me chanism, a concerted effort pay atte ntion to impl ementation.

County nongba n, flood, t hree to one dow n to further play a leadi ng catch total, i ntegrated and coordi nated role of all kinds is "long", "Sheriff" "Inspe ctor" to effectively fulfill their res ponsi bilities , formed the alig nment on the fire li ne and manageme nt a lively situati on. Se cond, w e must strengt he n the test impleme ntation of the G overnor. Role play the G overnor got the baton, for agricult ural and rural focus a nd "five water treatment", "three to split" work, refine impr ove asse ssment methods and evaluati on system, a ccurate asse ssment. Combine d with "da re play, tree benchmark" style buil ding five major operations, carry on and gain firstha nd experience of s upervi sion, in part icular, to strengthe n the focus on t he "long" signs "go left", "names" such as supervisi on, urged all level s longer on duty i n pla ce. Through the s upervisory a sses sment, to promote habits , stimulating power. Third, we must stre ngthe n impleme ntation st yle . Departments at all levels t o work i n rural areas a nd "five water treatment", "three to s plit" as traini ng ca dres for maj or platforms, compete against l arge examination room, ins pe ction cadre s work performance of the ring , water control and the Ja pane se pulled a work out, training, dis covery a nd selecti on of ca dres. T han g ood catch up, first to excellence-orie nted. Party members and cadre s at all level s must a dhere to the rural, water control a nd the Japa nese pulle d a gras s-roots, "put down the s helf, leane d" pragmatic style, the spirit of play, be come a be nchmark model . Four, we m ust stre ngthen propaganda impleme ntation. Compr e hensive utilizati on of micr o-credit, mi cro-bl ogging, new me dia, mini ng, summarizi ng, good publicity w ork in t he countryside and "f ive water treatment", "three to split" adva nce d models, poi nt to gather positive e nergy for the community to se e the re sults of our work i n time, increas e publi c awa reness, partici pation rates, sati sfaction and s upport. Play gong qingfu, a mass organizati on a nd grass-r oots such a s school s, communityT he role of

ocusing on ways and means of improving a nd upgra ding w ork, further devel opment of "three to s plit". (A) fully grasp "no una uthori sed" create d. T he t ow ns hip "no unaut horise d" created t he existi ng buildi ng "one house hol d, one document" s urvey and file storage w ork must be unconditional and full coverage. Mai n corridor leadi ng to the t own (roa d, river) village, the Ce ntral built-up area of the tow n on bot h si des must be to create a "no una uthorise d village". According to "five hundre d village s" created a nd s hanty towns , villages, old house s, reconstr ucti on of old plant, expand create, upgrading creates files, t he real "no unaut horis ed village" created int o the benefit of the pe ople of very good thi ng. (B) to stri ctly manage count as unaut hori sed controls. Promoti ng the "ne w" control w ork to move the ce nter of gravity, manageme nt measure s to the front, and ear nestly pi pes effectively. A strict new unaut hori sed network re sponsi bilit y. Sect ors s uch as la nd, housing and basi c stations (stations) and t he Tow nshi p of grid a ccountability me cha nisms must be stri ctly in a ccor dance wit h the new regulat ory requirements, effective implementation of the area of responsibility of the new inspe ctions, s uppress ion, dem olition work to e ns ure that the new "zer o tolerance". Se cond, publi c security, w ater, ele ctricit y, water, oce ans a nd fis heries , touri sm coll aborati on, market s upervi sion de partments s hould strictly enfor ce the illegal constr ucti on of dis posal of relevant pr ovisi ons of the regulati ons, effective fulfilment of res ponsi bilities, particularly in e lectri city and water suppl y, and other units may not be new il legal buildi ngs to supply water a nd el ectricity supply. While more reg ulation to pr event per sonal priva cy violati ons . Illicit tradi ng in illegal constr ucti on i n the Mi nistry of p ubli c se curity s ector t o strictly from the blow. T hree is t o create a dditional offence reporting sy stem of ince ntives. Accordi ng to buil ding la w and cov ers an area of nature , to report timely degree divide d report grade, effective after the removal of certain i nce ntives. (C) integrate d implementati on ", buil ding demoliti on, m odificati on, use" combi nation. Dem olition is the means and purpose built i s. To adhere to t he buil ding demoli she d, combi nation of constr uction a nd demolition waste , demolished with combi ne d efforts to improve t he s cie ntific level of thr ee to s plit; second, we must pay attenti on to "thre e to s plit" and "five hundred" a nd "five water treatment", "three of the four si des", t he s hackDi strict transformation, a nd da ngerous ol d room transf ormation and "two roa d si des", se ries work organic com bine d up, active do Rive r, and al ong demolition w ork, and manpower a dvance village in the, and ol d resi dential demoliti on work, to improve d masses housi ng conditions and live e nvironment; thr ee to put " three m odified a split" as tra ditional low, a nd small , and bulk indus try structure tra nsformation upgrade of important i nitiatives to caug ht, speed up a dvance industry Park, effectiv e optimization park e nvironme nt

什么叫做假凝? 新拌混凝土的假凝是怎样造成的? 假凝现象是指水泥的一种不正常的早期 固化,发生在水泥用水拌合的头几分钟内。假凝和快凝是不同的,前者不发生大 量的热量,而且经剧烈搅拌,水泥浆又可恢复塑性,并达到正常凝结,对强度亦 无不利影响,但是给施工却带来许多的困难。 一般认为,假凝的主要原因是由 于水泥粉磨时受到高温(有时超过 150℃)影响,使部分二水石膏脱水生成半水石 膏(Cas02˙?H20),当水泥调水后,它们又重新水化为二水石膏并析出晶体,在水 泥浆中形成二水石膏的结构网, 从而引起水泥浆的固化。但由于不是水泥组成的 水化, 所以不像快凝那样放出大量的热。这种假凝的水泥浆经剧烈搅动破坏二水 石膏的结构网后,水泥浆又能恢复原来的塑性状态。 混凝土养护 混凝土养护有两个目的:一是创造使水泥得以充分水化的条件,加速混凝土 硬化;二是防止混凝土成型后因日晒、风吹、干燥、寒冷等自然因素的影响而出 现超出正常范围的收缩、裂缝及破坏等现象。 混凝土的标准养护条件为温度(20± 3)℃,相对湿度保持 90%以上,时间 28d。在实际工程中一般无法保证标准养护条件,而只能采取措施在经济实用条 件下取得尽可能好的养护效果。 混凝土养护从大的范围可分为自然养护与加热养 护两类。 混凝土的自然养护就是利用*均气温高于+5℃的自然条件,用适当

的材料对混凝土表面加以覆盖并浇水, 使混凝土在一定的时间内保持水泥水化作 用所需要的适当温度和湿度条件,正常增长强度。混凝土自然养护的方法及要点 如下: ①应在浇筑完毕后的 12h 内对混凝土加以覆盖和浇水,具体而言,初凝后 可以覆盖,终凝后开始浇水。混凝土强度未达到 1.2N/mm2 以前不得上人踩 踏或安装模板及支架。 ②覆盖物可用麻袋片、草帘、竹帘、锯末、砂及炉渣等,浇水次数以使混 凝土保持湿润为准,养护用水应与拌制用水相同。大面积结构如*骸⒙グ濉⑽ 面等可以蓄水养护。当日*均气温低于 5℃时不得浇水。 ③混凝土的浇水养护时间,对采用硅酸盐水泥、普通硅酸盐水泥拌制的混 凝土不少于 7d;对掺用缓凝型外加剂、有抗渗性要求、掺加矿渣及粉煤灰拌制

and impr ove idle l and of utilizati on, real a chieve d envir onment im proved a nd productivity development mutual promoti ng total wi n. 异 优 绩 成 级 班 教 所 我 中 年 去 。 入 投 感 情 受 享 、 爱 热 更 法 方 * 效 学 科 需 仅 不 就 量 质 和 * 水 活 生 己 自 提 字 言 驭 驾 的 能 养 素 高 较 有 拥 , 文 语 好 考 要

Five, firmly implement, promoting w ork ahe ad, to create hig hlights. T hird depl oyment, impleme ntation of seven, then it i s imperative to strengt hen re sponsibility a nd impr ove the mechanisms and impleme ntation.

All localities a nd departments m ust be convi nce d that goal s, goi ng all out, mustering spirit, w ork together t o ens ure that thi s year's obje ctives carry out tasks, at the forefront. First, we m ust strengthen the leader shi p to implement . Departments at all level s shoul d always w ork and rural "five water treatment", "three to split" in a n important position, and carry the mai n responsibi lity, m ain lea der personally, leaders arre sted and layers of res ponsi bility rank transmissi on pre ssure e stabli she d hierarchical a ccountabilit y, and work together to pr omote the w ork of the mechani sm, a concerted effort pay attention to impleme ntation.

County nongba n, flood, thr ee to one down t o further play a lea ding catch total, integrated a nd coor dinate d role of all ki nds i s "long", "Sheriff" "Inspe ctor" to effectively fulfill their res ponsi bilities , formed the alig nment on the fire line a nd ma nagement a l ively sit uation. Second, we must strengthe n the test impleme ntation of the Gover nor. Role play t he Gover nor got t he baton, for agricultural a nd rural focus and "five water treatment", "three to split" work, refine impr ove asse ssment methods and evaluati on system, a ccurate asses sment. Combi ned wit h "dare pla y, tree benchmark" style buildi ng five major operations, carry on a nd gain firstha nd ex perie nce of s upe rvision, in particular, to strengthe n the focus on t he "long" sig ns "go left", "names" such as s upervi sion, urge d all levels l onger on duty in pl ace. Through the supervis ory asse ssment, t o promote habit s, stimulati ng powe r. Thir d, we must stre ngthe n implementati on style . Departme nts at all levels to w ork in r ural areas and "five water treatment", "three to split" as traini ng cadre s for major platforms, compete agai nst large examination room, ins pecti on cadres work performance of the ring, water control and the Japanes e pulled a w orkout, trai ning, discovery and sele ction of ca dres. T han good catch up, f irst to exce llence-oriented. Party members and ca dres at all level s must adhere to t he rural, water contr ol and the Japa nese pulle d a grass -roots, "put dow n the s helf, leane d" pragmatic style, the spirit of play, become a be nchmark model. F our, we must stre ngthen propaganda implementati on. Compre he nsi ve utilization of micro -cre dit, micro-bl ogging , new me dia, mini ng, summarizi ng, good publicity w ork in the countrysi de and "five water treatment", "three to split" advanced m odel s, point to gather positive energy for the community to see t he result s of our w ork in time, i ncreas e publi c awarene ss , participati on rates, satisfaction and support. Play gongqi ngfu, a mass organizati on a nd grass -roots s uch a s

school s, communityT he role of

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ocusing on ways and means of improving a nd upgra ding w ork, further devel opment of "three to s plit". (A) fully grasp "no una uthori sed" create d. T he tow ns hip "no unaut horise d" created t he existi ng buildi ng "one house hol d, one document" s urvey and file storage w ork must be unconditional and full cov erage. Mai n corridor leadi ng to the t own (roa d, river) village, the Ce ntral built-up area of the tow n on bot h si des must be to create a "no una uthorise d village". According to "five hundre d village s" created a nd s hanty towns , villages, old house s, reconstr ucti on of old plant, expand create, upgrading creates files, t he real "no unaut horis ed village" created int o the benefit of th e pe ople of very good thi ng. (B) to stri ctly manage count as unaut hori sed controls. Promoti ng the "ne w" control w ork to move the ce nter of gravity, manageme nt measure s to the front, and ear nestly pi pes effectively. A strict new unaut hori sed network re sponsi bilit y. Sect ors s uch as la nd, housing and basi c stations (stations) and t he Tow nshi p of grid a ccountability me cha nisms must be stri ctly in a ccor dance wit h the new regulat ory requirements, effective implementation of the area of responsibility of the new inspe ctions, s uppress ion, dem olition work to e ns ure that the new "zer o tolerance". Se cond, publi c security, w ater, ele ctricit y, water, oce ans a nd fis heries , touri sm coll aborati on, market s upervi sion de partments s hould strictly enfor ce the illegal constr ucti on of dis posal of relevant pr ovisi ons of the regulati ons, effective fulfilment of res ponsi bilities, particularly in e lectri ci ty and water suppl y, and other units may not be new il legal buildi ngs to supply water a nd el ectricity supply. While more reg ulation to pr event per sonal priva cy violati ons . Illicit tradi ng in illegal constr ucti on i n the Mi nistry of publi c se curity s ector t o strictly from the blow. T hree is t o create a dditional offence reporting sy stem of ince ntives. According to buil ding la w and cov ers an area of nature , to report timely degree divide d report grade, effective after the removal of certain i nce ntives. (C) integrate d implementati on ", buil ding demoliti on, m odificati on, use" combi nation. Dem olition is the means and purpose built i s. To adhere to t he buil ding demoli she d, combi nation of constr uction a nd demolition waste , demolished with combi ne d efforts to impr ove t he s cie ntific level of thr ee to s plit; second, we must pay attenti on to "thre e to s plit" and "five hundred" a nd "five water t reatment", "three of the four si des", t he s hackDi strict transformation, a nd da ngerous ol d room transformation and "two roa d si des", se ries work organic com bine d up, active do Rive r, and al ong demolition w ork, and manpower a dvance village in the, and ol d resi dential demoliti on work, to improve d masses housi ng conditions and live e nvironment; thr ee to put "three m odified a split" as tra ditional low, a nd small , and bulk indus try structure tra nsformation upgrade of important i nitiatives to caug ht, speed up a dvance industry Park, effectiv e optimization park e nvironme nt

的混凝土不少于 14d,时间长一点更好。 ④有条件时可以采用塑料布覆盖养护, 混凝土敞露的表面应全部覆盖严密, 并保持塑料布内有凝结水。 ⑤在缺水地区或混凝土表面不便浇水或覆盖塑料布时, 可涂刷薄膜养生液, 以防止混凝土内部水分蒸发,以此进行养护。薄膜养生液是一类可成膜的溶液, 涂刷在混凝土表面上, 溶剂挥发后凝结成一层膜, 隔断混凝土内水分的蒸发路径, 达到养护目的。 ⑥混凝土在养护过程中,如发现遮盖不全,浇水不足,以致表面泛白或出 现细小干缩裂缝时,应立即仔细遮盖,充分浇水,加强养护,并延长浇水日期加 以补救。

混凝土的碳化 拌和混凝土时,硅酸盐水泥的主要成份 CaO 水化作用后生成 Ca(OH)2,它 在水中的溶解度低,除少量溶于孔隙液中,使孔隙液成为饱和碱性溶液外,大部 分以结晶状态存在,成为孔隙液保持高碱性的储备,它的 PH 值为 12.5~13.5。 空气中的 CO2 气体不断地透过混凝土中未完全充水的粗毛细孔道, 气相扩散到混 凝土中部分充水的毛细孔中,与其中的孔隙液所溶解的 Ca(OH)2 进行中和反应。 反应产物为 CaCO3 和 H2O,CaCO3 溶解度低,沉积于毛细孔中。该反应式为: Ca(OH)2+CO2→CaCO3↓+H2O 反应后, 毛细孔周围水泥石中的羟钙石补充溶解为 Ca2+和 OH-, 反向扩散到 孔隙液中,与继续扩散进来的 CO2 反应,一直到孔隙液的 PH 值降为 8.5~9.0 时,这层混凝土的毛细孔中才不再进行这种中和反应,此时即所谓“已碳化”。 确切地说,碳化应称为碳酸盐化。另外,凡是能与 Ca(OH)2 进行中和反应的一 切酸性气体,如 SO2、SO3、H2S 以至于气相 HCI 等,均能进行上述中和反应,使 混凝土碱度降低,故混凝土碳化应广义地称为“中性化”。混凝土表层碳化后, 大气中的 CO2 继续沿混凝土中未完全充水的毛细孔道向混凝土深处气相扩散, 更 深入地进行碳化反应。

and impr ove idle l and of utilizati on, real a chieve d envir onment im proved a nd productivity development mutual promoti ng total wi n. 异 优 绩 成 级 班 教 所 我 中 年 去 。 入 投 感 情 受 享 、 爱 热 更 法 方 * 效 学 科 需 仅 不 就 量 质 和 * 水 活 生 己 自 提 字 言 驭 驾 的 能 养 素 高 较 有 拥 , 文 语 好 考 要

Five, firmly implement, promoting w ork ahe ad, to create hig hlights. T hird depl oyment, impleme ntation of seven, then it i s imperative to strengt hen re sponsibility a nd impr ove the mechanisms and impleme ntation.

All localities a nd departments m ust be convi nce d that goal s, goi ng all out, mustering spirit, w ork together t o ens ure that thi s year's obje ctives carry out tasks, at the forefront. First, we m ust strengthen the leader shi p to implement . Departments at all level s shoul d always w ork and rural "five water treatment", "three to split" in a n important position, and carry the mai n responsibi lity, main lea der personally, leaders arre sted and layers of res ponsi bility rank transmissi on pre ssure e stabli she d hierarchical a ccountabilit y, and work together to pr omote the w ork of the mechani sm, a concerted effort pay attention to impleme ntation.

County nongba n, flood, thr ee to one down t o further play a lea ding catch total, integrated a nd coor dinate d role of all ki nds i s "long", "Sheriff" "Inspe ctor" to effectively fulfill their res ponsi bilities , formed the alig nment on the fire line a nd ma nagement a lively sit uation. Second, we must strengthe n the test impleme ntation of the Gover nor. Role play t he Gover nor got t he baton, for agricultural a nd rural focus and "five water treatment", "three to split" work , refine impr ove asse ssment methods and evaluati on system, a ccurate asses sment. Combi ned wit h "dare pla y, tree benchmark" style buildi ng five major operations, carry on a nd gain firstha nd ex perie nce of s upe rvision, in particular, to strengthe n the focus on t he "long" sig ns "go left", "names" such as s upervi sion, urge d all levels l onger on duty in pl ace. Through the supervis ory asse ssment, t o promote habit s, stimulati ng powe r. Thir d, we must stre ngthe n implementati on style . Departme nts at all levels to w ork in r ural areas and "five water treatment", "three to split" as traini ng cadre s for major platforms, compete agai nst large examination room, ins pecti on cadres work performance of the ring, water control and the Japanes e pulled a w orkout, trai ning, discovery and sele ction of ca dres. T han good catch up, first to exce llence-oriented. Party members and ca dres at all level s must adhere to t he rural, water contr ol and the Japa nese pulle d a grass -roots, "put dow n the s helf, leane d" pragmatic style, the spirit of play, become a be nchmark model. F our, we must stre ngthen propaganda implementati on. Compre he nsi ve utilization of micro -cre dit, micro-bl ogging , new me dia, mini ng, summarizi ng, good publicity w ork in the countrysi de and "five water treatment", "three to split" advanced m odel s, point to gather positive energy for the community to see t he result s of our w ork in time, i ncreas e publi c awarene ss , participati on rates, satisfaction and support. Play gongqi ngfu, a mass organizati on a nd grass -roots s uch a s

school s, communityT he role of

-3-

ocusing on ways and means of improving a nd upgra ding w ork, further devel opment of "three to s plit". (A) fully grasp "no una uthori sed" create d. T he t ow ns hip "no unaut horise d" created t he existi ng buildi ng "one house hol d, one document" s urvey and file storage w ork must be unconditional and full coverage. Mai n corridor leadi ng to the t own (roa d, river) village, the Ce ntral built-up area of the tow n on bot h si des must be to create a "no una uthorise d village". According to "five hundre d village s" created a nd s hanty towns , villages, old house s, reconstr ucti on of old plant, expand create, upgrading creates files, t he real "no unaut horis ed village" created int o the benefit of the pe ople of very good thi ng. (B) to stri ctly manage count as unaut hori sed controls. Promoti ng the "ne w" control w ork to move the ce nter of gravity, manageme nt measure s to the front, and ear nestly pi pes effectively. A strict new unaut hori sed network re sponsi bilit y. Sect ors s uch as la nd, housing and basi c stations (stations) and t he Tow nshi p of grid a ccountability me cha nisms must be stri ctly in a ccor dance wit h the new regulat ory requirements, effective implementation of the area of responsibility of the new inspe ctions, s uppress ion, dem olition work to e ns ure that the new "zer o tolerance". Se cond, publi c security, w ater, ele ctricit y, water, oce ans a nd fis heries , touri sm coll aborati on, market s upervi sion de partments s hould strictly enfor ce the illegal constr ucti on of dis posal of relevant pr ovisi ons of the regulati ons, effective fulfilment of res ponsi bilities, particularly in e lectri city and water suppl y, and other units may not be new il legal buildi ngs to supply water a nd el ectricity supply. While more reg ulation to pr event per sonal priva cy violati ons . Illicit tradi ng in illegal constr ucti on i n the Mi nistry of p ubli c se curity s ector t o strictly from the blow. T hree is t o create a dditional offence reporting sy stem of ince ntives. Accordi ng to buil ding la w and cov ers an area of nature , to report timely degree divide d report grade, effective after the removal of certain i nce ntives. (C) integrate d implementati on ", buil ding demoliti on, m odificati on, use" combi nation. Dem olition is the means and purpose built i s. To adhere to t he buil ding demoli she d, combi nation of constr uction a nd demolition waste , demolished with combi ne d efforts to improve t he s cie ntific level of thr ee to s plit; second, we must pay attenti on to "thre e to s plit" and "five hundred" a nd "five water treatment", "three of the four si des", t he s hackDi strict transformation, a nd da ngerous ol d room transf ormation and "two roa d si des", se ries work organic com bine d up, active do Rive r, and al ong demolition w ork, and manpower a dvance village in the, and ol d resi dential demoliti on work, to improve d masses housi ng conditions and live e nvironment; thr ee to put " three m odified a split" as tra ditional low, a nd small , and bulk indus try structure tra nsformation upgrade of important i nitiatives to caug ht, speed up a dvance industry Park, effectiv e optimization park e nvironme nt

(注:“碳酸气”和”含碳酸的水”“与混凝土中氢氧化钙作用”机理和效果都是不一样的。 不能都叫做碳化。 碳化是特指潮湿空气中的二氧化碳扩散侵入混凝土中与氢氧化钙反应生成 碳酸钙的反应,又称碳酸盐化,日本叫作中性化。 在水下的混凝土是不受碳化作用的。水 中溶解的二氧化碳与混凝土的作用是一种侵蚀作用, 效果是形成碳酸氢钙而被溶出, 是一种 溶析性破坏。 但是并不是水中只要有二氧化碳都有侵蚀性, 那些与水中碳酸氢钙相*衡的二 氧化碳没有侵蚀性,称作*衡二氧化碳,其余的才是侵蚀性二氧化碳。 )

影响混凝土碳化的因素 大气中结构混凝土的碳化通常是一个缓慢过程。 碳化速度取决于混凝土渗透 性与大气的 CO2 浓度。 环境条件 因为碳化是液相反应,十分干燥的混凝土即一直处于相对湿度低于 25%空 气中的混凝土很难碳化;在空气湿度 50%~75%的大气中,不密实的混凝土最容 易碳化; 但在相对湿度>95%的潮湿空气中或在水中的混凝土反而难以碳化,这是 因为混凝土含水时透气性小,碳化慢;在湿度相同时,风速愈高、温度愈高,混 凝土碳化也愈快;混凝土碳化速度与空气中 CO2 浓度的*方根成正比。 水泥品种 一般说来, 普通硅酸盐水泥要比早强硅酸盐水泥碳化稍快, 掺混合材的水泥 碳化速度更快,混合材掺量越大,碳化速度越快。掺用优质减水剂或引气剂,可 以大大改善混凝土的和易性, 减小水灰比, 降低混凝土的透气性能, 使碳化减慢。 骨料种类 混凝土中的骨料本身一般比较坚硬、密实,总的说来,天然砂、碎石基本没 有透气性,因此混凝土的碳化主要通过水泥浆体进行。 水灰比

and impr ove idle l and of utilizati on, real a chieve d envir onment im proved a nd productivity development mutual promoti ng total wi n. 异 优 绩 成 级 班 教 所 我 中 年 去 。 入 投 感 情 受 享 、 爱 热 更 法 方 * 效 学 科 需 仅 不 就 量 质 和 * 水 活 生 己 自 提 字 言 驭 驾 的 能 养 素 高 较 有 拥 , 文 语 好 考 要

Five, firmly implement, promoting w ork ahe ad, to create hig hlights. T hird depl oyment, impleme ntation of seven, then it i s imperative to strengt hen re sponsibility a nd impr ove the mechanisms and impleme ntation.

All localities a nd departments m ust be convi nce d that goal s, goi ng all out, mustering spirit, w ork together t o ens ure that thi s year's obje ctives carry out tasks, at the forefront. First, we m ust strengthen the leader shi p to implement . Departments at all level s shoul d always w ork and rural "five water treatment", "three to split" in a n important position, and carry the mai n responsibi lity, m ain lea der personally, leaders arre sted and layers of res ponsi bility rank transmissi on pre ssure e stabli she d hierarchical a ccountabilit y, and work together to pr omote the w ork of the mechani sm, a concerted effort pay attention to impleme ntation.

County nongba n, flood, thr ee to one down t o further play a lea ding catch total, integrated a nd coor dinate d role of all ki nds i s "long", "Sheriff" "Inspe ctor" to effectively fulfill their res ponsi bilities , formed the alig nment on the fire line a nd ma nagement a l ively sit uation. Second, we must strengthe n the test impleme ntation of the Gover nor. Role play t he Gover nor got t he baton, for agricultural a nd rural focus and "five water treatment", "three to split" work, refine impr ove asse ssment methods and evaluati on system, a ccurate asses sment. Combi ned wit h "dare pla y, tree benchmark" style buildi ng five major operations, carry on a nd gain firstha nd ex perie nce of s upe rvision, in particular, to strengthe n the focus on t he "long" sig ns "go left", "names" such as s upervi sion, urge d all levels l onger on duty in pl ace. Through the supervis ory asse ssment, t o promote habit s, stimulati ng powe r. Thir d, we must stre ngthe n implementati on style . Departme nts at all levels to w ork in r ural areas and "five water treatment", "three to split" as traini ng cadre s for major platforms, compete agai nst large examination room, ins pecti on cadres work performance of the ring, water control and the Japanes e pulled a w orkout, trai ning, discovery and sele ction of ca dres. T han good catch up, f irst to exce llence-oriented. Party members and ca dres at all level s must adhere to t he rural, water contr ol and the Japa nese pulle d a grass -roots, "put dow n the s helf, leane d" pragmatic style, the spirit of play, become a be nchmark model. F our, we must stre ngthen propaganda implementati on. Compre he nsi ve utilization of micro -cre dit, micro-bl ogging , new me dia, mini ng, summarizi ng, good publicity w ork in the countrysi de and "five water treatment", "three to split" advanced m odel s, point to gather positive energy for the community to see t he result s of our w ork in time, i ncreas e publi c awarene ss , participati on rates, satisfaction and support. Play gongqi ngfu, a mass organizati on a nd grass -roots s uch a s

school s, communityT he role of

-4-

ocusing on ways and means of improving a nd upgra ding w ork, further devel opment of "three to s plit". (A) fully grasp "no una uthori sed" create d. T he tow ns hip "no unaut horise d" created t he existi ng buildi ng "one house hol d, one document" s urvey and file storage w ork must be unconditional and full cov erage. Mai n corridor leadi ng to the t own (roa d, river) village, the Ce ntral built-up area of the tow n on bot h si des must be to create a "no una uthorise d village". According to "five hundre d village s" created a nd s hanty towns , villages, old house s, reconstr ucti on of old plant, expand create, upgrading creates files, t he real "no unaut horis ed village" created int o the benefit of th e pe ople of very good thi ng. (B) to stri ctly manage count as unaut hori sed controls. Promoti ng the "ne w" control w ork to move the ce nter of gravity, manageme nt measure s to the front, and ear nestly pi pes effectively. A strict new unaut hori sed network re sponsi bilit y. Sect ors s uch as la nd, housing and basi c stations (stations) and t he Tow nshi p of grid a ccountability me cha nisms must be stri ctly in a ccor dance wit h the new regulat ory requirements, effective implementation of the area of responsibility of the new inspe ctions, s uppress ion, dem olition work to e ns ure that the new "zer o tolerance". Se cond, publi c security, w ater, ele ctricit y, water, oce ans a nd fis heries , touri sm coll aborati on, market s upervi sion de partments s hould strictly enfor ce the illegal constr ucti on of dis posal of relevant pr ovisi ons of the regulati ons, effective fulfilment of res ponsi bilities, particularly in e lectri ci ty and water suppl y, and other units may not be new il legal buildi ngs to supply water a nd el ectricity supply. While more reg ulation to pr event per sonal priva cy violati ons . Illicit tradi ng in illegal constr ucti on i n the Mi nistry of publi c se curity s ector t o strictly from the blow. T hree is t o create a dditional offence reporting sy stem of ince ntives. According to buil ding la w and cov ers an area of nature , to report timely degree divide d report grade, effective after the removal of certain i nce ntives. (C) integrate d implementati on ", buil ding demoliti on, m odificati on, use" combi nation. Dem olition is the means and purpose built i s. To adhere to t he buil ding demoli she d, combi nation of constr uction a nd demolition waste , demolished with combi ne d efforts to impr ove t he s cie ntific level of thr ee to s plit; second, we must pay attenti on to "thre e to s plit" and "five hundred" a nd "five water t reatment", "three of the four si des", t he s hackDi strict transformation, a nd da ngerous ol d room transformation and "two roa d si des", se ries work organic com bine d up, active do Rive r, and al ong demolition w ork, and manpower a dvance village in the, and ol d resi dential demoliti on work, to improve d masses housi ng conditions and live e nvironment; thr ee to put "three m odified a split" as tra ditional low, a nd small , and bulk indus try structure tra nsformation upgrade of important i nitiatives to caug ht, speed up a dvance industry Park, effectiv e optimization park e nvironme nt

混凝土的碳化速度与它的透气性有很密切的关系, 混凝土的透气性越小, 碳 化进行越慢。水灰比小的混凝土由于水泥浆的组织密实,透气性小,因而碳化速 度就慢。同理,单位水泥用量多的混凝土碳化较慢。 浇筑与养护质量 密实的混凝土表层孔隙很小, 易从潮湿的空气中吸取水分而充满水, 故不易 碳化;欠密实的混凝土表层中大孔隙内无水,CO2 可以由气相扩散到充满水的毛 细孔隙而完成碳化。所以越是密实的混凝土其抗碳化能力越高。 混凝土浇筑与养护质量是影响混凝土密实性的一个重要因素。 如果混凝土浇 筑时不规范,特别是振捣不密实,以及养护方法不当、养护时间不足时,就会造 成混凝土内部毛细孔道粗大,且大多相互连通,严重时会引起混凝土再现蜂窝、 裂缝等缺陷,使水、空气、侵蚀性化学物质沿着粗大的毛细孔道或裂缝进入混凝 土内部,从而加速混凝土的碳化。

and impr ove idle l and of utilizati on, real a chieve d envir onment im proved a nd productivity development mutual promoti ng total wi n. 异 优 绩 成 级 班 教 所 我 中 年 去 。 入 投 感 情 受 享 、 爱 热 更 法 方 * 效 学 科 需 仅 不 就 量 质 和 * 水 活 生 己 自 提 字 言 驭 驾 的 能 养 素 高 较 有 拥 , 文 语 好 考 要

Five, firmly implement, promoting w ork ahe ad, to create hig hlights. T hird depl oyment, impleme ntation of seven, then it i s imperative to strengt hen re sponsibility a nd impr ove the mechanisms and impleme ntation.

All localities a nd departments m ust be convi nce d that goal s, goi ng all out, mustering spirit, w ork together t o ens ure that thi s year's obje ctives carry out tasks, at the forefront. First, we m ust strengthen the leader shi p to implement . Departments at all level s shoul d always w ork and rural "five water treatment", "three to split" in a n important position, and carry the mai n responsibi lity, main lea der personally, leaders arre sted and layers of res ponsi bility rank transmissi on pre ssure e stabli she d hierarchical a ccountabilit y, and work together to pr omote the w ork of the mechani sm, a concerted effort pay attention to impleme ntation.

County nongba n, flood, thr ee to one down t o further play a lea ding catch total, integrated a nd coor dinate d role of all ki nds i s "long", "Sheriff" "Inspe ctor" to effectively fulfill their res ponsi bilities , formed the alig nment on the fire line a nd ma nagement a lively sit uation. Second, we must strengthe n the test impleme ntation of the Gover nor. Role play t he Gover nor got t he baton, for agricultural a nd rural focus and "five water treatment", "three to split" work , refine impr ove asse ssment methods and evaluati on system, a ccurate asses sment. Combi ned wit h "dare pla y, tree benchmark" style buildi ng five major operations, carry on a nd gain firstha nd ex perie nce of s upe rvision, in particular, to strengthe n the focus on t he "long" sig ns "go left", "names" such as s upervi sion, urge d all levels l onger on duty in pl ace. Through the supervis ory asse ssment, t o promote habit s, stimulati ng powe r. Thir d, we must stre ngthe n implementati on style . Departme nts at all levels to w ork in r ural areas and "five water treatment", "three to split" as traini ng cadre s for major platforms, compete agai nst large examination room, ins pecti on cadres work performance of the ring, water control and the Japanes e pulled a w orkout, trai ning, discovery and sele ction of ca dres. T han good catch up, first to exce llence-oriented. Party members and ca dres at all level s must adhere to t he rural, water contr ol and the Japa nese pulle d a grass -roots, "put dow n the s helf, leane d" pragmatic style, the spirit of play, become a be nchmark model. F our, we must stre ngthen propaganda implementati on. Compre he nsi ve utilization of micro -cre dit, micro-bl ogging , new me dia, mini ng, summarizi ng, good publicity w ork in the countrysi de and "five water treatment", "three to split" advanced m odel s, point to gather positive energy for the community to see t he result s of our w ork in time, i ncreas e publi c awarene ss , participati on rates, satisfaction and support. Play gongqi ngfu, a mass organizati on a nd grass -roots s uch a s

school s, communityT he role of

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